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(BELOW) Comparison of some different model Turner Base Mics and mic plug wiring.
Courtesy Heart of Dixie CB Radio
(BELOW) HOW TO INSTALL A PL-259 COAX CONNECTION
A PL-259 is often incorrectly assembled, so this video will keep it correct everytime if done this way, and quickly.
Courtesy Wallcott Radio
FCC FACT SHEET
Part 95 Personal Radio Service Reform Report and Order -
The Cobra 135 was a solid performer, in fact, many regarded it's receiver as one of the best in the industry.
The shape/design chosen for this model was definitely different than any other, but I'll have to admit, it really didn't catch on with me.
Cobra hit pay dirt later on when they used the same basic design, but lengthened it, and added a lighter face to it - yes, the Cobra 2000!
I purchased a Solarcon A-99CK from Ebay and when it arrived it was missing the aluminum mount for the radials. Ebay refuses to help me, the seller refuses06-14-2017,
STOCK MIC OR POWER MIC?
As most of us know - a power microphone for your CB radio can do wonders. Because a power microphone has its own amplification circuit it can often turn a CB radio with boring audio into a high quality sounding station. For many people who like to sound "LOUD" on AM a power microphone is the only way to go as it gives them the extreme modulation levels they need to achieve that break-through sound. But a power microphone isn't necessarily a perfect choice for every radio and in many cases it can do more harm than good.
To understand this we first go back to the factory when the CB manufacturer put together your radio. They designed a specific audio circuit for your radio and for some radios they put more effort and time into the design with potentiometers that could be adjusted internally for just the right "sound" and others they didn't really bother with and the audio circuit has a poor design. As mentioned in a previous article the Cobra 18 WX II was one of the CB's that had terrible modulation and no way to adjust it internally. Adding a power microphone was the only way to make it sound mildly better and that still isn't saying much.
On the other hand you have a Export radio like the Magnum 257. A very popular Export but people always complained about its tiny little toy-like stock microphone. While the microphone was pretty small, its ability as a stock microphone was often overlooked. When I first tried a Magnum 257 I wasn't really impressed with the modulation that I was seeing out of the stock mike, but then a friend told me that the stock mic actually is a factory power microphone. Sure enough when you open it up inside is an adjustment, and once turned up to max the stock mic outperformed every after market power microphone I tried on that radio.
Recently the stock mike / power mike decision really hit home when I was playing around with a Uniden Grant XL Philippines model radio I had picked up from a local. I added my trusty DM-452 microphone thinking that this radio would sound great, but the first reports told me that I was cutting out and sounded awful. I turned the mic gain on the power microphone down to almost nothing, but still it sounded like crap said everyone. I lowered the microphone gain on the radio to the 9 o'clock position and then people said it started sounding bearable but by no means very good.
I finally decided that this particular Grant must have been set up well enough that a power microphone wasn't necessary. Sure enough once I hooked up a stock 5 pin microphone I was utterly amazed. The audio was clear, loud and reports came back telling me the radio was definitely a keeper, boy did it sound good.
This really surprised me because the radio was stock, and besides making some minor adjustments to the AM dead key I never would have thought that a stock microphone would match up so well.
For many years I was of the school of thought that every one of my radios needed a power microphone to sound "right", but long ago I learned that it's best to try that stock microphone out for a while before tossing it aside. Many times I've found that merely turning up a radio's modulation pot to maximum would make the stock microphone sound amazing and if I added a power microphone all I would get is a squeal
If the time comes when you do decide to add a power microphone the best luck I've had with hand held models are the Astatic D104m6b, the RF Limited 2018 echo mic, and the DM-452.
Remember - the only way to know for sure what sounds best is to give both the stock mic and a power mic a chance to prove what they've got. Also, every now and then you'll find a great "hot" mic. These are mics that match-up just right to the radio you've added them to. The cartridge inside of some mics like this were just of better quality and made to talk. They've also been known to outdo many power mics. If you get one, hang on to it.
Goodbye, Radio Shack, Old Friend!
Not all radio waves travel farther at night than during the day, but some, short and medium wave, which AM radio signals fall under, definitely can given the right conditions. The main reason this is the case has to do with the signal interacting with a particular layer of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere, and how this interaction changes from the nighttime to the daytime.
The ionosphere is a layer of the upper atmosphere about 50 to 600 miles above sea level. It gets its name because it is ionized consistently by solar and cosmic radiation. In very simple terms, X-ray, ultraviolet, and shorter wavelengths of radiation given off by the Sun (and from other cosmic sources) release electrons in this layer of the atmosphere when these particular photons are absorbed by molecules. Because the density of molecules and atoms is quite low in the ionosphere (particularly in the upper layers), it allows free electrons to exist in this way for a short period of time before ultimately recombining. Lower in the atmosphere, where the density of molecules is greater, this recombination happens much faster.
What does this have to do with radio waves? Without interference, radio waves travel in a straight line from the broadcast source, ultimately hitting the ionosphere. What happens after is dependent on a variety of factors, notable among them being the frequency of the waves and the density of the free electrons. For AM waves, given the right conditions, they will essentially bounce back and forth between the ground and the ionosphere, propagating the signal farther and farther. So clearly the ionosphere can potentially play an important part in the terrestrial radio process. But it is the constantly shifting nature of the ionosphere that makes things really interesting. And for that, we’ll have to get a little more technical, though we’ll at the least spare you the math, and we’ll leave out a little of the complexity in an effort to not go full textbook on you.
In any event, the ionosphere’s composition changes most drastically at night, primarily because, of course, the Sun goes missing for a bit. Without as abundant a source of ionizing rays, the D and E levels (pictured below) of the ionosphere cease to be very ionized, but the F region (particularly F2) still remains quite ionized. Further, because the atmosphere is significantly less dense here than the E and D regions, it results in more free electrons (the density of which is key here).
When these electrons encounter a strong AM radio wave, they can potentially oscillate at the frequency of the wave, taking some of the energy from the radio wave in the process. With enough of them, as can happen in the F layer, (when the density of encountered electrons is sufficient relative to the specific signal frequency), and assuming they don’t just recombine with some ion (which is much more likely in the E and D layers in the daytime), this can very effectively refract the signal back down to Earth at sufficient strength to be picked up on your radio.
Depending on conditions, this process can potentially repeat several times with the signal bouncing down to the ground and back up. Thus, using this skywave, rather than just the normal daytime groundwave, AM radio signals can be propagated even thousands of miles.
Of course, this can become a major problem given that there are only a little over 100 allowed AM radio frequencies (restricted to keep signals interfering too much with one another), but around 5,000 AM radio stations in the United States alone. Given that at night, the signals from these stations can travel vast distances, this is just a recipe for stations interfering with one another. As a result, at night, AM stations in the United States typically reduce their power, go off the air completely until sunrise the next day, and/or possibly are required to use directional antennas, so their specific signal doesn’t interfere with other stations on the same frequency. On the other hand, FM stations don’t have to do any of this as the ionosphere doesn’t greatly affect their signals, which has the side benefit (or disadvantage, depending on your point of view) of severely limiting the range of the FM signals, which rely on groundwave propagation.
AM Radio (Amplitude Modulation) was the first type of radio broadcasting used for mass-consumption by the public and is still widely used today. (Although AM radio is becoming less widespread in America, it is still the dominant type of terrestrial radio broadcasting in some countries, like Australia and Japan.) This type of signal works with the receiver translating and amplifying amplitude changes in a wave at a particular frequency into the sounds you hear coming from your speakers. FM Radio (Frequency Modulation), which started coming into its own in the 1950s, is broadcast in much the same way that AM is, but the receiver processes changes in the frequency of a wave, as opposed to the amplitude.
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